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The geographic isolation of Sardinia has left its inhabitants to a large degree unaffected by outside influences, apart from a minority of Phoenician, Roman and Vandal colonisers.For example, the combined 3% of hapogroups I1, I2a2a and R1a could be attributed to the Vandals, a Germanic tribe who ruled over Sardinia from 435 to 534.Germanic tribes are brought haplogroup I1 and I2a2a (M223).Some or all of these lineages might be descended from Cro-Magnons from the Italian peninsula who migrated north when the climate warmed up 10,000 years ago.By the time the first Neolithic farmers and herders arrived in Italy from the Near East 8,000 years ago most of the peninsula could well have been inhabited by I2a1a hunter-gatherers.
You may also find it useful to visualise the modern distribution of Y-DNA haplogroups to get a sense of they represent.
Three thirds of this time corresponds to the Ice Age, a period when humans lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers in small tribes.
During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which lasted approximately from 26,500 to 19,000 years ago, most of northern and central Europe was covered by ice sheets and was virtually uninhabitable for humans.
This page attempts to identify their genetic markers through the use of Y-chromosomal haplogroups, which are passed on nearly unaltered from father to son.
In the following section we will review the Y-DNA haplogroups of the various prehistoric and historical populations that have settled in Italy since Cro-Magnon colonised Europe during the Ice Age.