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In most cases, we cannot use isotopic techniques to directly date fossils or the sedimentary rocks they are found in, but we can constrain their ages by dating igneous rocks that cut across sedimentary rocks, or volcanic ash layers that lie within sedimentary layers.

Isotopic dating of rocks, or the minerals in them, is based on the fact that we know the decay rates of certain unstable isotopes of elements and that these rates have been constant over geological time.

One of the isotope pairs widely used in geology is the decay of K is a radioactive isotope of potassium that is present in very small amounts in all minerals that have potassium in them.Figure 8.4.4 Radiocarbon dates on wood fragments in glacial sediments in the Strait of Georgia [SE after Clague, J, 1976, Quadra Sand and its relation to late Wisconsin glaciation of southeast British Columbia, Can. Geological Time | Geologic Time Scale | Plate Tectonics | Radiometric Dating | Deep Time | Geological History of New Zealand | Radiometric Dating Radiometric measurements of time Since the early twentieth century scientists have found ways to accurately measure geological time.K-Ar is just one of many isotope-pairs that are useful for dating geological materials.Some of the other important pairs are listed in Table 8.4.1, along with the age ranges that they apply to and some comments on their applications.

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